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An Introduction to Incident Management

Updated: Apr 25



Incident management plays a crucial role in IT service management, aiming to minimize the negative impact of incidents by restoring normal service operation as swiftly as possible. This practice ensures continuity and reliability of IT services, essential for maintaining business operations and customer trust.


Incident Management involves the identification, analysis, and correction of disruptions to IT services to restore service operation as per agreed levels.

The scope encompasses activities such as incident detection and recording, classification and initial support, investigation and diagnosis, resolution and recovery, and incident closure. It also includes the management of incident-related communications with stakeholders throughout the incident lifecycle.

Key Benefits

The primary benefits of robust incident management include reduced service downtime, minimization of the adverse effects of incidents on business operations, enhanced customer satisfaction through rapid service restoration, and improved internal communication and operational efficiency.

Basic Concepts and Terms

Incident Management is grounded in several key concepts and terms that define its framework and operational procedures. Understanding these terms is essential for effective implementation and communication within the practice.

Incident:An unplanned interruption to an IT service or a reduction in the quality of an IT service. Failure of a component of a service that hasn’t yet impacted service is also considered an incident under ITIL guidelines.

Incident Model:A repeatable approach to managing a particular type of incident. This model includes predefined steps to handle and resolve an incident efficiently and effectively, often involving proven and tested solutions.

Major Incident:An incident that results in significant business impact and necessitates an immediate response and higher levels of coordination to resolve than normal incidents. Major incidents typically affect a large number of users, critical business functions, and have stringent restoration times as dictated by service level agreements.

Workaround:A temporary fix that reduces or eliminates the impact of an incident or problem for which a full resolution is not yet available. While workarounds can quickly restore service functionality, they may not address the underlying issue permanently and could contribute to technical debt.

Technical Debt:The future costs incurred from temporary solutions or incomplete work that will require additional remediation efforts. In incident management, this often arises from using workarounds rather than resolving the underlying cause of incidents.


Incident Handling and Resolution

The incident handling and resolution process encompasses a set of interrelated activities that transform inputs into outputs, with the aim to handle and resolve incidents efficiently.

Key activities in this process include:

  1. Incident Detection: Utilizing monitoring and event data to detect incidents.

  2. Incident Registration: Logging incidents and initiating communication regarding the incident status.

  3. Incident Classification: Categorizing incidents to prioritize them based on impact and urgency.

  4. Incident Diagnosis: Gathering detailed information to understand the incident better and initiating problem investigation requests if necessary.

  5. Incident Resolution: Implementing fixes or changes to restore the affected services or configuration items.

  6. Incident Closure: Closing incidents in the system and updating the knowledge base with resolution details.

Periodic Incident Review

This process ensures that the lessons learned from incident handling and resolution are integrated into the practice. It involves:

  1. Incident Review and Records Analysis: Analyzing incidents to identify patterns or common underlying causes.

  2. Incident Model Improvement Initiation: Updating and refining incident models based on recent incidents and emerging best practices.

  3. Incident Model Update Communication: Communicating changes in incident models to all relevant stakeholders to ensure everyone is updated on new procedures.

These processes form the backbone of incident management, ensuring a systematic approach to detecting, resolving, and learning from incidents. They help maintain service continuity and improve incident management practices over time.

Relationship with Other Practices

Incident management is not an isolated practice; it interacts significantly with other service management practices to ensure comprehensive service restoration and continual service improvement. Here are the key relationships:

Problem Management

Incident management is closely tied to problem management. While incident management focuses on restoring service operation quickly, problem management deals with diagnosing and resolving the underlying causes of incidents to prevent future occurrences. Effective collaboration between these two practices enhances the ability to not only react to incidents but also proactively mitigate potential disruptions.

Change Enablement

Change enablement interacts with incident management primarily through the implementation of changes aimed at resolving known errors that cause incidents. This relationship ensures that changes to services and configurations are managed in a controlled manner, reducing the likelihood of incidents occurring as a result of changes.

Service Desk

The service desk acts as the primary contact point for users reporting incidents. This practice supports incident management by ensuring that incidents are logged, classified, and escalated appropriately. Effective communication between the service desk and incident management teams is crucial for timely incident resolution and user satisfaction.

Monitoring and Event Management

Monitoring tools play a pivotal role in the early detection of incidents, often before users are affected. This practice feeds vital event data to incident management processes, enabling faster response times and more proactive service management.

Knowledge Management

Knowledge management supports incident management by providing documented solutions and workarounds, which help in quicker diagnosis and resolution of incidents. This ensures that knowledge derived from past incidents is effectively utilized to expedite current and future incident resolution efforts.

Supplier and Partner Management

Incidents often involve third-party services and components. Effective incident management requires seamless coordination with suppliers and partners to ensure that their contributions to services operate smoothly and that they meet their SLA commitments during incident resolution.

These relationships highlight the integrated nature of incident management within the broader service management framework. By working in conjunction with these practices, incident management not only restores services more efficiently but also contributes to the overall resilience and reliability of IT services.

Implementation Advice

Key Metrics

To effectively manage and improve the incident management process, it is crucial to track specific metrics that provide insight into the performance and efficiency of the practice.

Here are some key metrics to consider:

  1. Time between incident occurrence and detection: Measures how quickly an incident is detected after it occurs, indicating the effectiveness of monitoring tools and processes.

  2. Time between incident detection and acceptance for diagnosis: This metric tracks the time taken to accept an incident for diagnosis after it has been detected, reflecting the responsiveness of the incident management team.

  3. Time of diagnosis: Measures the duration of the diagnostic process, which impacts the overall incident resolution time.

  4. Number of reassignments: Indicates how often an incident is reassigned to different teams or individuals, which can signal inefficiencies in the incident classification or initial handling.

  5. Percentage of incidents resolved within agreed SLAs: A critical metric that measures the percentage of incidents resolved within the timeframes agreed upon in Service Level Agreements (SLAs).

  6. First-time resolution rate: Tracks the percentage of incidents resolved on the first attempt without the need for further interventions or escalations, reflecting the effectiveness of the initial response.

  7. User satisfaction with incident handling and resolution: Gauges how satisfied users are with the handling and resolution of their incidents, which is a key indicator of the quality of the incident management practice.

Things to Avoid

Implementing incident management practices requires careful consideration to avoid common pitfalls that can undermine the effectiveness of the process.

Here are several things to avoid:

  1. Overlooking training and development: Neglecting the training needs of the incident management team can lead to inefficiencies and errors in handling incidents.

  2. Inadequate communication: Failing to maintain clear and consistent communication between all parties involved in incident management can lead to delays and increased user dissatisfaction.

  3. Poor integration with other ITSM processes: Incident management should be closely integrated with other IT Service Management (ITSM) processes like problem management, change management, and configuration management. Poor integration can lead to missed opportunities for improvement and inefficiencies.

  4. Ignoring metrics and feedback: Not collecting or ignoring metrics and user feedback can prevent the incident management practice from evolving to meet changing needs and challenges.

  5. Lack of a standardized approach: Implementing incident management without standardized processes and guidelines can result in inconsistent handling of incidents, making the process less effective and more prone to errors.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is incident management?

Incident management is the process of managing the lifecycle of all incidents to ensure that normal service operation is restored quickly and with minimal impact to business operations. It involves steps like detection, registration, classification, diagnosis, and resolution of incidents.

How does incident management differ from problem management?

While incident management focuses on restoring service quickly without necessarily addressing the root cause, problem management seeks to resolve the underlying issues causing one or more incidents. Problem management aims to prevent incidents from recurring, whereas incident management aims to minimize their impact when they do occur.

What is a major incident, and how is it handled?

A major incident is an incident with significant business impact, requiring immediate attention and resolution. Major incidents are prioritized and often involve a dedicated response team, including a Major Incident Manager, to coordinate efforts across different teams and manage communications with all stakeholders.

How are incidents detected?

Incidents can be detected in several ways, including monitoring tools that identify issues automatically, reports from users experiencing service disruptions, or through regular checks and diagnostics by IT teams.

What role does the service desk play in incident management?

The service desk is typically the first point of contact for users reporting incidents. They are responsible for logging incidents, providing initial support, and escalating complex issues to the appropriate technical teams for further investigation and resolution.

Can incident management be automated?

Yes, many aspects of incident management, such as incident detection, registration, and even certain types of resolution, can be automated with the right tools. Automation helps speed up the response times and reduces the workload on IT staff, allowing them to focus on more complex tasks.

How is user satisfaction measured in incident management?

User satisfaction is often measured through surveys and feedback forms sent to users after an incident is resolved. This feedback is crucial for assessing the effectiveness of the incident management process and identifying areas for improvement.

What are the key metrics to track in incident management?

Important metrics include the time to detect, diagnose, and resolve incidents, the number of incidents resolved within agreed service levels, first-time fix rate, and user satisfaction levels. These metrics help in assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of the incident management process.


About the author

Hi, I'm Alan, and have been working within the IT sector for over 30 years.

For the last 15 years, I've focused on IT Governance, Information Security, Projects and Service Management across various styles of organisations and markets.

I hold a degree in Information Systems, ITIL Expert certificate, PRINCE2 Practitioner and CISMP (Information Security Management).


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