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Measuring & Reporting

Updated: Mar 11

Measurement and Reporting in ITIL v4

In an era where every strategic decision is underpinned by data, the art of Measurement and Reporting becomes the linchpin of IT service excellence.

At the heart of ITIL v4 lies a pivotal practice shaping IT service management's framework, turning raw data into the gold of actionable insights.

This isn't just about numbers; it's about how these numbers can narrate the story of IT's journey towards aligning with and driving business success.

Top 25 KPI and Metric Examples for Reporting & Monitoring IT Services & Processes




Calculation Method


Service Availability

Measures the percentage of time IT services are available for use.

(Total uptime / (Total uptime + Total downtime)) * 100


Incident Resolution Time

The average time taken to resolve incidents.

Average time taken from the opening of an incident to its resolution


First Contact Resolution Rate (FCRR)The percentage

The percentage of incidents that was resolved upon first contact with IT support.

(Incidents resolved on first contact / Total incidents reported) * 100


Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)

Average time required to repair a failed component or system.

Total downtime / Number of repairs


Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)

The average time between failures of a system.

Total operational time / Number of failures


Change Success Rate

The success rate of changes implemented without causing disruption.

(Successful changes / Total changes made) * 100


Customer Satisfaction Score (CSAT)

A measure of how satisfied customers are with the IT services they receive.

Average of customer satisfaction survey scores


Net Promoter Score (NPS)

Gauges the loyalty of customer relationships.

(% of Promoters - % of Detractors) * 100


Cost Per Ticket

The average cost of handling a service desk ticket.

Total cost of service desk / Total number of tickets


SLA Compliance Rate

The rate at which services meet their agreed-upon service level agreements (SLAs).

(Number of SLA met incidents / Total number of SLA applicable incidents) * 100


Percentage of Emergency Changes

Measures the proportion of changes that are classified as emergency changes.

(Number of emergency changes / Total number of changes) * 100


IT Spend as Percentage of Revenue

The proportion of revenue that is spent on IT.

(Total IT spend / Total revenue) * 100


Percentage of Projects on Time

The percentage of projects completed within their scheduled timelines.

(Number of projects completed on time / Total number of projects) * 100


Percentage of Projects on Budget

The percentage of projects completed within their allocated budgets.

(Number of projects completed within budget / Total number of projects) * 100


System Downtime Impact on Revenue

The financial impact of system downtime on revenue.

Revenue loss due to downtime / Total revenue


User Error Rate

The rate of incidents caused by user errors.

(Number of incidents due to user error / Total number of incidents) * 100


Application Load Time

The average time applications take to load for the user.

The average time taken for applications to load for users


Network Downtime

The total time the network was unavailable during a specified period.

Total time the network was unavailable during a specified period


CPU Utilization Rate

The percentage of the CPU's capacity that is being used.

(CPU time used / Total available CPU time) * 100


Memory Utilization Rate

The percentage of memory in use against the total available.

(Memory used / Total available memory) * 100


Storage Utilization Rate

The percentage of storage space used against the total available.

(Storage space used / Total available storage space) * 100


Ticket Volume Trend

The change in the number of tickets over time, indicating trends.

Comparison of ticket volumes over specified periods


Repeat Incident Rate

The percentage of incidents that are repeated over a specified period.

(Number of repeat incidents / Total number of incidents) * 100


Escalation Rate

The rate at which tickets are escalated to higher support tiers.

(Number of escalated tickets / Total number of tickets) * 100


Mean Time to Acknowledge (MTTA)

The average time it takes for an incident to be acknowledged after being reported.

Average time from incident report to acknowledgement

Recommendations for Implementing Reporting & Monitoring

Implementing effective measurement and reporting in ITIL v4 presents a nuanced tapestry of challenges and opportunities.

Here, we weave together the common hurdles and best practices into a cohesive set of recommendations, offering a roadmap to navigate the complexities of this essential practice.

  1. Embrace Integration Across ITSM Practices Ensure Measurement and Reporting are not isolated endeavours but are deeply integrated with other ITIL v4 practices. This holistic approach ensures that insights gained from data analysis are effectively applied across the IT service management spectrum, fostering a culture of continuous improvement and strategic alignment.

  2. Combat Data Overload with Strategic Focus In the deluge of data, the key is not to collect more but to collect smarter. Prioritise metrics that align closely with business objectives, using data filtering and aggregation techniques to distil insights that truly matter. This targeted approach ensures that decision-makers can access relevant, actionable information without being overwhelmed.

  3. Foster Seamless System Integration Break down the silos by ensuring a seamless integration of Measurement and Reporting tools with other ITSM processes. A unified IT ecosystem enhances the flow of information, supports comprehensive management strategies, and amplifies the effectiveness of IT services.

  4. Standardise for Accuracy and Reliability The foundation of meaningful reporting lies in the integrity of your data. Standardise data collection processes and conduct regular reviews to ensure the accuracy and consistency of your metrics. This commitment to data integrity is crucial for building trust and reliability in your reporting processes.

  5. Transform Data into Strategic Insights Cultivate a team adept in data analysis, equipped with the tools and training to transform complex datasets into clear, actionable insights. This capability enables your organisation to navigate the complexities of IT service management with informed confidence, driving strategic improvements and innovations.

  6. Illustrate IT's Value through Business Outcomes Bridge the gap between IT performance and business success by linking KPIs and CSFs to tangible business outcomes. Demonstrating IT's contribution to strategic goals and the bottom line underscores the indispensable role of IT services in achieving organisational success.

  7. Adopt a Balanced Metrics Approach Leverage leading and lagging indicators to comprehensively view IT service performance. This balanced approach provides insights into future trends and past results, enabling a proactive and informed management strategy.

  8. Communicate with Impact Tailor the presentation of data to meet the diverse needs of your stakeholders. Utilise visualisations and dashboards to make complex data accessible and engaging, ensuring that insights are communicated but are also compelling and actionable.

  9. Champion Continuous Improvement Embed a culture that sees every data point as an opportunity for improvement. Use the insights from Measurement and Reporting to drive continuous enhancements in IT service delivery, ensuring your services align with business needs and technological advancements.

  10. Leverage Advanced Technologies for Deeper Insights Harness the power of advanced analytics, AI, and machine learning to elevate your data analysis capabilities. These technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to uncover deeper insights, anticipate trends, and refine your IT service management practices for superior outcomes.

The Importance of Measurement and Reporting

Sit at any executive table, and you'll know that "data-driven" decisions are more critical than ever.

Measurement and Reporting outputs empower IT service managers and stakeholders with valuable insights into service performance, efficiency, and alignment with business goals.

The practice is not just about collecting data simply for the sake of it; it's about interpreting the data to inform strategic decisions, drive improvements, and demonstrate the value IT brings to the business.

Effective Measurement and Reporting enable organisations to:

  • Monitor and assess the performance of IT services.

  • Identify trends, anomalies, and areas of improvement.

  • Justify IT investments and demonstrate ROI.

  • Enhance accountability and transparency.

  • Support strategic planning and continuous improvement efforts.

  • Determine their compliance and maturity.

"You cannot control what you have never defined, and you cannot measure what you cannot control, and if you cannot measure, then what exactly are you managing?"

Understanding Measurement and Reporting in ITIL v4

Definition of Measurement and Reporting

In the context of ITIL, measurement and reporting are not merely about gathering numerical data; they involve translating this data into actionable insights that can guide strategic decision-making and operational improvements.

Objectives and Goals

The primary objective of Measurement and Reporting is to support informed decision-making by providing stakeholders with relevant, accurate, and timely information.

The goals associated with this practice include:

  • Ensuring Alignment with Business Objectives Organisations can ensure that their IT services directly contribute to strategic business goals by measuring service performance and outcomes.

  • Enhancing Service Quality Regular monitoring and reporting facilitate the identification of service quality issues, enabling timely corrective actions to be taken.

  • Improving Customer Satisfaction Measurement and Reporting provide insights into customer experiences and satisfaction levels, guiding efforts to enhance service delivery.

  • Supporting Continuous Improvement This practice helps identify trends and patterns over time, informing continuous improvement initiatives and innovation within IT service management.

Key Components of Measurement and Reporting

The most critical elements of measurement and reporting are Purpose, Objectives, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), Metrics and the types of measurements and reports.


This is the fundamental reason any IT service or process exists. It defines the intended outcome and sets the direction for the objectives and actions needed to achieve it.

The purpose defines the 'Why'. Why are we measuring something? Why do we need this process to work? What beneficial outcome does it give us?

So, to start with, we need to articulate the core purpose of measurement and reporting clearly.

It is important to repeat something said previously; we don't measure and report for the sake of the task itself (although I have seen, and perhaps in my earlier days, done this).

What behaviours are you likely to want to change based on the results you get from your measurement and reporting?

ITILs Planning and evaluation model
ITILs Planning & Evaluation Model


Once we know our purpose and our 'why', we can use that to determine our 'what' and objectives.

Objectives are specific, measurable targets that are set to achieve the purpose.

Objectives are designed to guide actions and ensure that the purpose is fulfilled. They provide a clear direction for what needs to be accomplished.

What state do we want to achieve and when?

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

KPIs measure IT services' and processes' effectiveness and efficiency in meeting their objectives.

They are critical for assessing performance and identifying areas for improvement. KPIs are quantifiable measurements that reflect the critical success factors of a project, process, or service.

Within ITIL v4, KPIs are essential for assessing IT services' efficiency, effectiveness, and quality.

Examples of IT service management KPIs include:

  • Service availability and uptime

  • Incident resolution times

  • Customer satisfaction scores

  • Change success rates


Simply put, metrics are measurements. They tell us how something is performing.

Typically, IT teams will be flooded with metrics, most of which tell us something useful and might guide behaviour. Still, only some of those metrics are important and are used to focus attention on a specific area. These metrics are KPIs.

An Example of the Relationships Between Purpose, Objective, Indicator and Metric

Let's take the example of an IT service desk to illustrate the relationship between purpose, objective, KPI, and metric within an ITIL framework:


The purpose of the IT service desk is to provide timely and practical support to users, ensuring their IT issues are resolved and their IT service needs are met, leading to high user satisfaction and minimal disruption to business operations.


To achieve this purpose, the IT service desk might set several objectives. One such objective could be: "To resolve 90% of IT issues on the first contact within one business day."

KPI (Key Performance Indicator)

A KPI to measure the effectiveness of this objective would be the "First Contact Resolution Rate (FCRR)." This KPI assesses the percentage of IT issues resolved during the first interaction with the user.


The metric underpinning this KPI could be the "Number of issues resolved on first contact" divided by the "Total number of issues reported." This ratio, expressed as a percentage, directly informs the FCRR KPI.

In this example:

  • The purpose gives the overarching reason for the IT service desk's existence, focusing on user satisfaction and operational efficiency.

  • The objective provides a clear, measurable target that contributes to achieving this purpose, in this case, resolving most issues on the first contact within a specific timeframe.

  • The KPI, the First Contact Resolution Rate, offers a way to measure the success of the IT service desk in meeting its objective. It's a clear indicator of performance and efficiency.

  • The metric, the ratio of first contact resolutions to total issues, is the data collected and analysed to calculate the KPI. It's a quantifiable measure that provides insight into the service desk's performance.

This progression from purpose to metric ensures that the IT service desk's operations are strategically aligned with broader business goals and that performance can be objectively measured and improved upon.

Types of Measurements and Reports

Measurement and Reporting in ITIL v4 encompass various types of data and reports, each serving different purposes and audiences.

These include:

  • Operational Reports focusing on day-to-day activities and service performance, such as incident reports and change management logs.

  • Tactical Reports that provide insights into the efficiency and effectiveness of processes and are used for mid-level management decision-making.

  • Strategic Reports for senior management focus on long-term objectives, service alignment with business goals, and overall service value.

In addition to these types, ITIL v4 also emphasises the importance of real-time dashboards and analytics tools that offer immediate insights into service performance, enabling quick responses to emerging issues or trends.

Steps for Implementing Measurement and Reporting

The successful implementation of Measurement and Reporting involves several key steps, each contributing to a comprehensive approach that ensures measurements and reports deliver actionable insights and drive continuous improvement.

1. Define Measurement Goals and Objectives

Start by establishing clear goals for your measurement and reporting activities.

These goals should directly support your IT service management and broader organisational objectives.

For example, if a critical business aim is to enhance customer satisfaction, one measurement goal could be to gauge the impact of IT services on customer experiences accurately.

2. Identify Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and Critical Success Factors (CSFs)

Choose KPIs and CSFs that provide meaningful insights into the performance and success of your IT services.

For instance, if improving service availability is a priority, relevant KPIs might include uptime percentages or mean time between failures (MTBF).

Ensure your KPIs are SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound) to facilitate effective measurement and analysis.

The SMART criteria for objectives
The SMART Criteria for Objectives

3. Establish Baselines and Targets

Before you can measure improvement, you need to know your starting point. Establish baselines for each KPI to understand your current performance levels.

Then, set realistic improvement targets based on these baselines, considering short-term and long-term goals.

For example, if your current first contact resolution rate is 75%, you might target an increase to 80% within six months.

4. Select Tools and Technologies

Invest in tools and technologies that enable efficient data collection, analysis, and reporting.

This could range from comprehensive IT service management (ITSM) platforms to specialised analytics and dashboarding tools.

The choice of technology should support your specific measurement goals and integrate well with your existing IT infrastructure.

5. Implement Data Collection Processes

Develop standardised processes for the consistent collection of data related to your KPIs.

This might involve automated data logging, regular service performance reviews, or customer satisfaction surveys.

Ensure that these processes are reliable and that the data collected is accurate and timely.

6. Analyse and Interpret Data

Regularly analyse your data to identify trends, patterns, and anomalies.

This analysis should go beyond mere numbers to interpret what the data means for your IT services and the organisation as a whole. For instance, if you notice a gradual decline in service availability, investigate the underlying causes and determine what actions are needed to reverse this trend.

7. Report Findings to Stakeholders

Communicate your findings clearly and effectively to all relevant stakeholders.

This might involve creating detailed reports for IT management, at-a-glance dashboards for executive leadership, or simplified summaries for non-technical staff. Tailor the presentation and format of your reporting to suit the needs and preferences of different audiences.

8. Review and Refine

Finally, make measurement and reporting an ongoing, iterative process.

Regularly review the effectiveness of your measurement goals, KPIs, tools, and processes.

Be prepared to refine your approach in response to feedback, changes in business objectives, or shifts in the IT landscape. This continual reassessment and adjustment are vital to aligning with organisational goals and driving continuous improvement in IT service management.


Measurement and Reporting are critical components of ITIL v4, enabling organisations to make informed decisions, drive improvements, and demonstrate the value of IT services.

By understanding and implementing effective Measurement and Reporting practices, organisations can enhance service quality, improve customer satisfaction, and achieve their strategic objectives.

As we look to the future, it's clear that Measurement and Reporting will continue to evolve, shaped by technological advancements and changing business needs. Organisations that stay ahead of these trends continuously refining and adapting their practices, will thrive in the ever-changing landscape of IT service management.


This article discusses concepts and practices from the ITIL framework, which is a registered trademark of AXELOS Limited. The information provided here is based on the ITIL version 4 guidelines and is intended for educational and informational purposes only. ITIL is a comprehensive framework for IT service management, and its methodologies and best practices are designed to facilitate the effective and efficient delivery of IT services. For those interested in exploring ITIL further, we recommend consulting the official ITIL publications and resources provided by AXELOS Limited.