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ITIL Business Analysis

Updated: Apr 25

Introduction to Business Analysis

The convergence of IT services with business goals is paramount. ITIL Version 4 Business Analysis Practice is a critical discipline to bridge this gap and ensure IT services are aligned with the business's needs and objectives. In short, it's about truly understanding and documenting business requirements and defining solutions to business problems.

Solutions often include a systems development component but may also include process improvement, organisational change, strategic planning, and policy development.

The Purpose

The primary purpose of ITIL V4 Business Analysis is to provide a framework with procedures and methods for analysts to follow, ensuring that the IT services provided are high-value and aligned with business requirements.

Business Analysis aids organisations in navigating through the complexities of changes in technology, legal requirements, and market trends by clearly understanding their impacts on business processes and IT infrastructure.


The scope of ITIL V4 Business Analysis encompasses understanding the current business processes and the design of 'to-be' processes, identifying and analysing the requirements, assessing the business impacts, and ensuring that the suggested IT solutions effectively meet the business needs.

It includes changes or enhancements to the IT services and ensures that new or altered business processes, organisational structures, and capabilities are implemented.


The primary objective is to analyse aspects of a business to define needs and recommend solutions that facilitate value creation for stakeholders.

This involves:

  • Understanding and articulating business needs and requirements.

  • Designing and describing solutions aligned with organisational objectives.

  • Supporting the delivery of solutions that enable value creation.

Key Benefits

The implementation of ITIL V4 Business Analysis Practice within an organisation's service portfolio offers several benefits, including but not limited to:

  • Improved Alignment: Enhances the alignment between IT services and business objectives, ensuring that IT investments directly contribute to business goals.

  • Increased Agility: A structured approach to managing change facilitates quicker adaptation, improving the organisation's agility.

  • Enhanced Decision Making: Provides insightful data and analysis that aid in better decision-making by highlighting the impacts of changes and the potential opportunities they might bring.

  • Optimised Costs: Identifies redundancy and inefficiency within IT services and processes, offering solutions to reduce costs while maintaining or improving service quality.

  • Risk Mitigation: Helps identify potential risks and threats to IT services and provides strategies to mitigate them, ensuring minimal disruption to business operations.

Basic Concepts and Terms


In the context of ITIL, utility refers to the functionality offered by a product or service to meet a particular need.

It is essentially the "what" it delivers to the customer, ensuring that the services are fit for purpose. Utility is about the attributes of a service that make it capable of satisfying users' needs and wants, providing a solution to a problem, or enhancing the user's capabilities.


Warranty, conversely, stands for the assurance that a product or service will meet agreed-upon requirements.

Warrant is the "how" the services are delivered, ensuring they are fit for use. Warranty focuses on the services' availability, capacity, continuity, and security, guaranteeing that they will be delivered in a quality that meets the user's needs and expectations.

For example, Consider a smartphone. The utility is that the phone can run apps and make calls. Warranty is the signal service available where and when you need it, and the battery lasts long enough for the user's needs. Warranty without utility (or vice versa) results in a worthless service.

User Flows

User flows are diagrams or sequences that outline a user's steps to accomplish a goal within a system or service. They provide valuable insights into the user's experience and are crucial in designing and analysing IT services.

By understanding user flows, business analysts and IT professionals can identify potential improvements or challenges within the service delivery process, enhancing overall efficiency and user satisfaction.

An example of a user flow
An example of a user flow for an ecommerce website

User Stories

User stories are short, simple descriptions of a feature told from the perspective of the end-user or customer.

They typically follow a simple template:

As a [type of user], I want [an action] so that [a benefit]. 

This is usually followed by some acceptance criteria demonstrating that the system can meet the intended need.


  • As a data analyst,

  • I want to export the results of my queries as a CSV file,

  • So that I can easily share my findings with colleagues who do not have access to the analytics platform.

Acceptance Criteria:

  1. The user can export the results of any query from the analytics platform.

  2. The exported file is in CSV format.

  3. The user can download the CSV file to their local machine.

  4. The CSV file includes all columns displayed in the query result.

  5. The filename of the CSV is relevant to the query and contains the export date for easy identification.

User stories are a common component in Agile software development. They are used to articulate the needs and expectations of the users in a concise and actionable manner, but they are a foundational tool for any kind of user-centric analysis. They help ensure the team understands why a particular feature or function is needed and its value to the user.

SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning tool used to identify the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats related to a project or a business venture. In ITIL Version 4, SWOT Analysis is utilised in the Business Analysis Practice to understand the internal and external factors that could impact IT services' development and delivery methods and effectiveness.

SWOT analysis helps make informed decisions, leverage strengths, address weaknesses, seize opportunities, and counter threats to align IT services with business objectives.

SWOT Analysis template
SWOT Analysis template


There are two essential processes:

  1. Design and Maintenance of a Business Analysis Approach

  2. Business Analysis and Solution Identification.

1. Design and Maintenance of a Business Analysis Approach

  • Objective: Establish a consistent and effective business analysis approach by addressing organisational needs.

  • Key Activities:

  • Analysing the organisation and its requirements.

  • Developing and agreeing on a business analysis approach.

  • Reviewing and improving the business analysis approach.

2. Business Analysis and Solution Identification

  • Objective: Analyse stakeholders' needs and requirements to identify and propose solutions.

  • Key Activities:

  • Elicitation and analysis of information from stakeholders to understand their needs and requirements.

  • Defining solution options, identifying recommended solutions, and supporting solution delivery teams.

  • Assessing the solution's performance and value, proposing improvements.

Relationship with other practices

Integrating the ITIL Version 4 Business Analysis practice within the broader spectrum of ITIL practices is crucial for optimising business processes and ensuring the IT infrastructure aligns with the overarching business goals.

This integration fosters a coherent strategy that enhances efficiency, improves service delivery, and ensures that IT services are consistently aligned with the needs of the business.

Below are key points and relationships between ITIL Version 4 Business Analysis practice and other ITIL practices:

Service Value Chain Integration: The business analysis practice is integral to the ITIL service value chain. It provides critical insights during the 'Plan' and 'Improve' activities, ensuring that data-driven decisions align with the organisation's objectives.

Business analysis helps refine the strategies applied across the service value chain by analysing business needs and evaluating potential impacts.

Relationship with Service Design: Service Design benefits significantly from business analysis by ensuring that services are designed with a clear understanding of market demands and user needs. Business analysis contributes to defining service requirements, ensuring they are aligned with business objectives and capable of delivering the intended value to customers.

Collaboration with Change Management: Business Analysis practice supports Change Management by providing detailed impact analyses of proposed changes.

Understanding the potential business impacts of changes ensures informed decision-making, minimising risks and aligning changes with business strategies and objectives.

Supporting Continuous Improvement: Business analysis provides the data and insights needed to drive improvements by identifying inefficiency, waste, or underperformance areas. This alignment ensures continuous improvement efforts focus on areas that benefit the organisation most significantly.

Interactions with Risk Management: Risk Management is closely related to business analysis, as understanding the business context and its changing needs is crucial for identifying and assessing risks.

Business analysis provides context and insights into the business environment, enabling risk management practices to be more precise and focused on addressing the correct issues.

Link with Strategy Management: The Business Analysis practice feeds directly into Strategy Management by ensuring that IT services and projects are in lockstep with organisational goals and strategic objectives.

Strategic decisions benefit from the insights generated through business analysis, allowing for a data-driven approach to direction setting and priority allocation.

Roles & Responsibilities

In the ITIL Version 4 Business Analysis Practice, defining clear roles and responsibilities is crucial for the seamless integration and execution of business analysis within the IT service management landscape.

This section delineates the key roles in the business analysis process and outlines their primary responsibilities.

Business Analyst

The Business Analyst is at the core of the business analysis practice. Their primary responsibilities include:

  • Requirements Gathering: Understanding and documenting business requirements, needs and requirements from stakeholders.

  • Analysis: Analysing the requirements to discern feasible solutions that align with business objectives.

  • Communication: Serving as a bridge between IT teams and business stakeholders to ensure clear understanding and expectation management.

  • Validation and Verification: Confirming that solutions meet business needs and requirements.

IT Service Manager

The IT Service Manager oversees the IT services' lifecycle and service strategy and ensures that ITIL practices are adhered to. Within business analysis, their responsibilities involve:

  • Strategic Alignment: Ensuring the business analysis efforts support the organisation's strategy and service management goals.

  • Resource Allocation: Providing the necessary resources, including personnel and tools, for practical business analysis.

  • Stakeholder Engagement: Facilitating communication between the business analyst and other stakeholders.

Project Manager

Project Managers plan, execute, and close projects. Their role in business analysis includes:

  • Integration: Incorporating business analysis activities into the project plan and ensuring they are aligned with the project's objectives.

  • Coordination: Working closely with the Business Analyst to ensure timely delivery of analysis outputs.

  • Risk Management: Identifying and managing risks associated with the business analysis process.

Quality Assurance (QA) Specialist

QA Specialists are responsible for ensuring the quality of the IT services and solutions. Their involvement in business analysis includes:

  • Testing: Collaborating with the Business Analyst to develop test cases based on business requirements.

  • Quality Control: Ensuring that the solutions developed meet the quality standards and business requirements.

  • Feedback Loop: Providing feedback to the business analysis process to continually improve the quality and efficacy of existing processes.

Implementation Advice

Implementing ITIL Version 4 Business Analysis practices within an organisation is a strategic move towards enhancing decision-making, improving service management outcomes, and aligning IT services with business objectives.

To ensure a successful implementation, here are some key metrics to measure effectiveness and pitfalls to avoid.

Key Metrics

  1. Stakeholder Satisfaction: Regular feedback from stakeholders should be sought to gauge the effectiveness of business analysis practices in meeting their needs and expectations.

  2. Quality of Requirements: The clarity, completeness, and accuracy of requirements directly influence the success of IT services. These should be assessed through peer reviews and stakeholder validation.

  3. Time to Market: The time taken from identifying business needs to deploying solutions is crucial. Shorter cycles indicate efficient analysis and implementation processes.

  4. Project Success Rate: Measure the number of projects that have met their objectives, stayed within budget, and been delivered on time. This reflects the alignment of business analysis practices with project goals.

  5. Change Impact Analysis: Evaluate the effectiveness of change impact analyses in identifying potential consequences, assessing risks, and proposing mitigation strategies.

Things to Avoid

  • Underestimating the Importance of Communication: Effective communication is crucial at every business analysis stage. Failing to maintain clear, open, and continuous communication can lead to misunderstandings, overlooked needs, and project failures.

  • Neglecting Stakeholder Engagement: Stakeholder engagement is critical to uncovering real needs and ensuring we deliver solutions aligned with business goals. Neglecting this aspect can result in solutions failing to meet the requirements.

  • Overlooking the Importance of Training: As ITIL Version 4 introduces new concepts and practices, adequate training is essential to ensure proficiency in the new methodologies for business analysts and other involved personnel.

  • Lack of Flexibility: While frameworks provide structure, too rigid an adherence without room for flexibility can stifle innovation and slow response times to emerging business needs.

  • Ignoring the Need for Continuous Improvement: Business analysis is not a one-off task but an ongoing practice. Regularly review and improve business analysis processes to adapt to changing business environments and technology landscapes.

Implementing ITIL Version 4 Business Analysis practices requires careful planning, ongoing management, and a commitment to continuous improvement.

Organisations can greatly enhance their capacity to deliver IT services that meet and exceed business objectives by focusing on key metrics, effectively engaging stakeholders, and avoiding common pitfalls.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the ITIL business analysis process?

The ITIL business analysis process is a systematic practice within the ITIL Version 4 framework that focuses on identifying business needs and determining solutions to business problems.

This process involves understanding the requirements from a business perspective and ensuring that the IT services align with these needs.

It encapsulates various methods, including requirements gathering, stakeholder analysis, SWOT analysis, and the evaluation of solution options.

The aim is to facilitate effective decision-making and support organisations in developing and implementing technology-driven solutions that enhance business processes.

What are the 4 components of business analysis?

The 4 components of business analysis within the ITIL Version 4 framework can be categorised as follows:

  1. Needs Identification: This involves recognising and articulating the business needs or the issues that need addressing.

  2. Requirements Gathering and Analysis: This step includes collecting detailed information on stakeholder requirements and analysing them to ensure a thorough understanding.

  3. Solution Evaluation and Recommendation: After analysing requirements, potential solutions are evaluated, and recommendations are made based on how well they address the business needs and alignment with the business strategy.

  4. Implementation and Continuous Improvement: This final component involves implementing the chosen solution and continuously assessing its effectiveness, with adjustments made as necessary to ensure continued alignment with business objectives.

What are the 5 stages of business analysis?

The 5 stages of business analysis, particularly in the context of ITIL Version 4, are outlined as follows:

  1. Initiation: This initial stage focuses on understanding the high-level business needs and the project objectives. It involves preliminary stakeholder identification and engagement.

  2. Planning: The business analysis activities are detailed, including defining the scope, selecting methodologies, and establishing timelines.

  3. Elicitation and Collaboration: During this stage, the business analyst works closely with stakeholders to elicit detailed requirements and to facilitate a collaborative environment for gathering and refining information.

  4. Analysis and Design: The gathered requirements are analysed, and solutions are designed. This stage involves creating models and prototypes, where applicable, to visualise the solutions.

  5. Evaluation and Validation: The final stage involves evaluating the implemented solutions against the initial business needs and requirements. It ensures that the delivered outcome is fit for purpose and meets the stakeholders' expectations.

These stages represent a comprehensive approach to business analysis within the ITIL framework, ensuring that IT services are aligned with business needs and contribute positively to the organisational goals.


About the author

Hi, I'm Alan, and have been working within the IT sector for over 30 years.

For the last 15 years, I've focused on IT Governance, Information Security, Projects and Service Management across various styles of organisations and markets.

I hold a degree in Information Systems, ITIL Expert certificate, PRINCE2 Practitioner and CISMP (Information Security Management).


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