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Continual Improvement

Updated: Mar 11



Continual Improvement is the ongoing effort to enhance products, services, or processes through incremental and breakthrough improvements.

Purpose & Value

Key Components

Activities / Process

Integration With Other Practices

Roles & Responsibilities

Key KPIs & Metrics

Key Advice


An image depicting continual improvement

The ability to adapt and improve continuously is not just an advantage but a necessity for organisations aiming to stay competitive and meet the ever-changing demands of their customers.

The IT Infrastructure Library version 4 (ITIL v4) framework, which is at the forefront of defining best practices in IT service management (ITSM), places a significant emphasis on the practice of Continual Improvement.

This core practice underscores the need for ongoing evaluation and enhancement of services, processes, and practices to ensure they remain aligned with the shifting needs of the business and its customers.

Continual Improvement within ITIL v4 is not a mere suggestion; it is a structured, disciplined approach that permeates every aspect of ITSM. It recognises that improvement is not a one-time effort but a persistent journey toward excellence. Whether it's refining the efficiency of a service, enhancing the quality of a product, or optimising an underlying process, the practice of Continual Improvement ensures that an organisation can adapt, survive, and thrive in the face of new challenges and opportunities.

This article delves into the essence of ITIL4's Continual Improvement practice, exploring its definition, purpose, value, and key components. It outlines the activities and processes involved, discusses its integration with other ITIL practices, and examines the roles, responsibilities, and tools associated with successful implementation. By embracing the principles and strategies outlined in ITIL v4's Continual Improvement practice, organisations can foster a culture of innovation, enhance their competitiveness, and ensure their services continually align with customer needs and business goals.

The journey of Continual Improvement is both a strategic imperative and a tactical advantage. As we explore this practice further, it becomes clear that its implementation can lead to significant benefits for any organisation willing to commit to the path of ongoing enhancement and adaptation.

The continual improvement cycle
The continual improvement cycle

In the following sections, we will dissect the definition of Continual Improvement, its purpose and value to an organisation, the key components that make it effective, and the processes and activities that ensure its success. We will also look at how it integrates with other ITIL practices, the roles and responsibilities it entails, the key performance indicators that measure its impact, and the tools that support its implementation. Lastly, we will offer key advice for organisations looking to embed Continual Improvement into their ITSM practices.

By understanding and applying the principles of ITIL4's Continual Improvement, organisations can not only adapt to the present but also shape their future, ensuring that they continue to deliver value to their customers and stakeholders in an ever-changing world.


Continual Improvement, within the context of the ITIL v4 framework, is defined as the ongoing effort to enhance products, services, or processes. These enhancements can be achieved through incremental improvements over time or through significant breakthroughs. The essence of Continual Improvement lies in its commitment to constantly seek out ways to increase efficiency, effectiveness, and overall value of IT services and operations.

The concept distinguishes between two types of improvements:

  • Incremental improvements are small, continuous changes that cumulatively lead to significant enhancements without disrupting daily operations. These are often low-risk and low-cost initiatives that focus on minor adjustments to existing processes, services, or products.

  • Breakthrough improvements, on the other hand, are substantial changes that result from adopting new methods, technologies, or practices. These improvements can be transformative, leading to a fundamental rethinking of processes and services, and often involve higher risks and investments.

The goal of Continual Improvement is not merely to fix what is broken but to proactively seek opportunities to make good services great and to ensure that IT services evolve in alignment with business goals and customer needs. It encourages a culture of questioning and learning, where feedback is valued, and opportunities for enhancement are actively pursued.

In ITIL v4, Continual Improvement is considered a strategic activity, integral to all aspects of IT service management. It is embedded within the lifecycle of every service, ensuring that services do not stagnate but improve in quality and value over time. This holistic approach ensures that improvements are made in a coordinated, consistent manner, aligning with the overall strategic objectives of the organisation.

The Continual Improvement practice is supported by a model and various tools, including the Continual Improvement Model, which provides a structured approach to identifying and implementing improvements. This model encourages organisations to start by understanding their vision, assessing the current state, defining measurable targets, and then developing and executing a plan to achieve these targets. The cycle concludes with evaluating the impact of improvements and incorporating lessons learned into future cycles.

[*** Insert diagram representing the Continual Improvement Model here ***]

By adopting this structured approach, organisations can ensure that their efforts to improve are not just random or ad hoc but are part of a strategic, ongoing process that contributes to the organisation's overall success.

In summary, Continual Improvement in ITIL v4 is about more than just making changes; it's about making changes that add value, based on a deep understanding of business objectives and customer needs. It's a practice that ensures IT services are not only relevant and efficient today but are also evolving to meet the challenges and opportunities of tomorrow.

Purpose & Value

The purpose of Continual Improvement within the ITIL v4 framework is multi-faceted, aiming not only to enhance the performance and efficiency of IT services but also to ensure these services continually align with the changing needs of the business and its customers. This practice is fundamental in enabling organisations to remain competitive, agile, and responsive to market dynamics and technological advancements. Below, we delve into the key aspects of Continual Improvement's value to an organisation.

Enhances Service Quality and Efficiency

Continual Improvement is instrumental in identifying areas within IT services and processes where enhancements can be made to boost efficiency, reduce errors, and improve overall quality. By systematically reviewing and refining service delivery, organisations can achieve higher levels of operational excellence and service performance.

Increases Customer Satisfaction

Aligning services more closely with customer needs is a core objective of Continual Improvement. By regularly soliciting and incorporating feedback, organisations can ensure their services meet and exceed customer expectations, thereby enhancing customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Drives Cost Efficiency

Through the optimisation of processes and the elimination of waste, Continual Improvement helps organisations reduce the cost of service delivery. This not only includes direct costs but also the costs associated with service disruptions, such as downtime and the impact on customer satisfaction.

Supports Strategic Alignment

Continual Improvement ensures that IT services evolve in concert with the organisation's strategic objectives. This alignment is crucial for maintaining the relevance of IT services and for supporting the organisation's overall goals and initiatives.

Fosters a Culture of Innovation and Adaptive Change

By embedding a mindset of ongoing enhancement and learning, Continual Improvement encourages innovation and the willingness to adapt to change. This culture is essential for organisations looking to thrive in today's fast-paced and ever-changing business environment.

Enhances Competitiveness

Continuously improving service offerings not only helps meet current customer needs but also anticipates future demands, thereby enhancing an organisation's competitiveness. By staying ahead of trends and leveraging new technologies and methodologies, organisations can differentiate themselves in the marketplace.

The value of Continual Improvement is not limited to these areas alone; it permeates every aspect of IT service management, contributing to a resilient, agile, and customer-focused organisation.


Value Provided by Continual Improvement

Service Quality and Efficiency

Increases operational excellence and performance of IT services.

Customer Satisfaction

Ensures IT services meet and exceed customer expectations.

Cost Efficiency

Optimises processes and reduces the cost of service delivery.

Strategic Alignment

Aligns IT services with the organisation's strategic objectives.

Culture of Innovation

Encourages a mindset of continuous enhancement and adaptability to change.


Enables organisations to anticipate and meet future demands, enhancing market position.

Key Components

The practice of Continual Improvement in ITIL v4 is underpinned by several key components that provide the structure and guidance necessary for effective implementation. These components are integral to ensuring that improvements are consistent, measurable, and aligned with both the organisation's strategic goals and the needs of its customers. Below, we explore these components in detail.

The Continual Improvement Model

The Continual Improvement Model is at the heart of ITIL v4's approach to enhancing services and processes. This model provides a structured methodology for identifying, implementing, and evaluating improvements. It encourages organisations to start by understanding their vision, where they are now, where they want to be, how to get there, take action, and check the outcomes. This cyclic process ensures that improvements are strategic, targeted, and effective.

Improvement Register

The Improvement Register is a tool used to track and manage improvement opportunities. It acts as a central repository for all identified opportunities for enhancement, along with details on their potential impact, required resources, and implementation status. This tool facilitates prioritisation and ensures that valuable improvement initiatives are not overlooked.

Measurement and Metrics

Effective measurement and the use of appropriate metrics are crucial for identifying areas for improvement and for evaluating the success of implemented changes. ITIL v4 emphasises the importance of defining clear, relevant metrics that align with business objectives, allowing organisations to make data-driven decisions and to measure progress towards their goals.


Governance in the context of Continual Improvement ensures that all improvement activities are aligned with the organisation's strategic objectives and comply with relevant policies and regulations. This component provides the framework within which decisions about improvements are made, ensuring they are justified, prioritised, and implemented in a controlled manner.


Perhaps the most challenging but essential component of Continual Improvement is culture. Promoting an environment that encourages continual learning, experimentation, and feedback is fundamental to sustaining improvement efforts. A culture that values openness, collaboration, and adaptability is crucial for embedding Continual Improvement into the fabric of the organisation.



The Continual Improvement Model

Provides a structured approach for identifying and implementing improvements.

Improvement Register

Tracks and manages improvement opportunities, facilitating prioritisation and oversight.

Measurement and Metrics

Employs specific, relevant metrics for guiding decisions and evaluating success.


Ensures improvements align with strategic objectives and comply with standards.


Cultivates an environment supportive of continuous learning, feedback, and adaptation.

These components are not standalone; they interact and support each other to create a comprehensive framework for Continual Improvement. By leveraging these key components, organisations can ensure that their improvement efforts are strategic, effective, and sustainable.

Activities / Process

The Continual Improvement process within ITIL v4 encompasses a series of structured steps designed to identify, implement, evaluate, and consolidate improvements across services and processes. This cycle is iterative, ensuring that improvements are ongoing and that the organisation continually adapts and evolves to meet its objectives and customer needs. Below, we outline the major steps involved in the Continual Improvement process.

Identify Improvement Opportunities

The first step in the Continual Improvement process involves identifying opportunities for enhancement. This can be achieved through various means, including customer feedback, service performance analysis, process audits, and benchmarking against industry standards. Identifying these opportunities requires a keen understanding of the organisation's strategic goals, current performance levels, and customer expectations.

Define What Will Be Improved

Once opportunities are identified, the next step is to clearly define what needs to be improved. This involves setting specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for each improvement initiative. Clearly defining the scope and targets of improvement ensures that efforts are focused and aligned with the organisation's strategic objectives.

Plan How to Implement Improvements

With clear targets in place, planning how to implement the improvements is crucial. This step involves outlining the resources required, assigning responsibilities, setting timelines, and developing a detailed action plan. Effective planning ensures that improvement initiatives are feasible and that their implementation is structured and coordinated.

Execute the Improvement Plan

Execution involves putting the improvement plan into action. This step may include process changes, the introduction of new technologies, training for staff, or any number of other activities depending on the nature of the improvement. Throughout this phase, it is important to monitor progress closely and to communicate effectively with all stakeholders involved.

Review and Evaluate the Improvement Effort

After executing the improvement plan, the next step is to review and evaluate the results against the predefined objectives. This evaluation should consider both the outcomes of the improvement and the process followed to achieve them. Lessons learned during this phase are crucial for informing future improvements.

Consolidate Improvements and Apply Lessons Learned

The final step in the Continual Improvement process is to consolidate the improvements made and to integrate the lessons learned into future efforts. This may involve updating policies, processes, and documentation, as well as sharing knowledge across the organisation to ensure that improvements are sustained and that the organisation continues to evolve.



Identify Improvement Opportunities

Identify areas for enhancement through feedback, analysis, and benchmarking.

Define What Will Be Improved

Set SMART objectives for improvement initiatives.

Plan How to Implement Improvements

Outline resources, responsibilities, timelines, and action plans.

Execute the Improvement Plan

Implement the plan, monitoring progress and communicating with stakeholders.

Review and Evaluate the Improvement Effort

Assess outcomes against objectives, capturing lessons learned.

Consolidate Improvements and Apply Lessons Learned

Update practices and share knowledge to sustain improvements.

The Continual Improvement process is cyclical, with each phase feeding into the next, ensuring that the organisation remains in a state of perpetual evolution and adaptation. By following these steps, organisations can systematically enhance their services, processes, and overall performance, aligning with the ITIL v4 framework's emphasis on delivering value and excellence.

Integration With Other Practices

The Continual Improvement practice within ITIL v4 does not operate in isolation. Instead, it is intrinsically linked with other ITIL practices, enhancing their effectiveness and ensuring that the overall IT service management (ITSM) framework remains dynamic, responsive, and aligned with business objectives. This section explores how Continual Improvement supports and is supported by several other key ITIL practices.

Service Level Management

Continual Improvement is crucial for Service Level Management (SLM), ensuring that services continually meet or exceed the performance levels agreed upon in service level agreements (SLAs). By regularly reviewing service performance and customer feedback, Continual Improvement initiatives can be directed towards areas that will most effectively enhance service quality and customer satisfaction, thereby supporting the objectives of SLM.

Change Control

The practice of Change Control benefits significantly from integration with Continual Improvement. Continual Improvement provides a structured approach to identifying, evaluating, and implementing changes that result from improvement initiatives. By ensuring that changes are managed in a controlled manner, with appropriate assessment and authorisation, the risk of negative impacts on services is minimised.

Incident Management

Continual Improvement supports Incident Management by identifying trends that indicate systemic issues within IT services. By analysing incident patterns and root causes, Continual Improvement initiatives can be targeted to address these underlying issues, thereby reducing the volume and impact of future incidents and enhancing overall service resilience.

Problem Management

Similarly, Continual Improvement is closely linked with Problem Management. By focusing on the root causes of problems identified through Problem Management processes, Continual Improvement actions can be formulated to prevent recurrence, enhance service stability, and improve customer experience. This proactive approach to addressing problems ensures that services evolve to become more reliable and efficient over time.

Service Design

The integration of Continual Improvement with Service Design ensures that services are not only designed to meet current requirements but are also adaptable to future needs and improvements. Feedback and lessons learned from the Continual Improvement process provide invaluable insights that can be incorporated into the design of new or modified services, ensuring that they are more effective, efficient, and aligned with customer expectations.

The integration of Continual Improvement with these and other ITIL practices ensures that the ITSM framework remains a dynamic and evolving system, capable of adapting to changing business needs and technologies. This holistic approach maximises the value IT services deliver to the organisation and its customers.

Roles & Responsibilities

The successful implementation of Continual Improvement within the ITIL v4 framework relies on clear definition and allocation of roles and responsibilities. These roles ensure that improvement initiatives are effectively managed, implemented, and integrated into the wider IT service management processes. Below, we summarise the typical roles and their responsibilities within the Continual Improvement practice.



Continual Improvement Manager

Oversees the Continual Improvement process, coordinates with other ITSM processes, and reports on improvement efforts.

Process Owners

Manages and continually improves specific ITSM processes.

Service Owners

Accountable for the delivery and quality of IT services, including improvement initiatives.

Improvement Teams

Implements specific improvement initiatives, monitors progress, and evaluates impact.

Data Analysts

Provides data analysis and insights to support identification and evaluation of improvement initiatives.

Continual Improvement Manager

The Continual Improvement Manager oversees the entire Continual Improvement process, from identifying improvement opportunities to evaluating the outcomes of improvement initiatives. This role involves coordinating with other ITSM processes, ensuring alignment with organisational goals, and reporting on improvement efforts to senior management.

Process Owners

Process Owners are responsible for managing specific ITSM processes and for ensuring these processes are continually improved. They identify areas within their processes that require enhancement, set improvement objectives, and oversee the implementation of improvement actions.

Service Owners

Service Owners are accountable for the delivery and overall quality of a specific IT service. They play a key role in Continual Improvement by identifying service improvement opportunities, defining service improvement plans, and ensuring that improvements are implemented effectively.

Improvement Teams

Improvement Teams are cross-functional groups tasked with implementing specific improvement initiatives. These teams may include IT professionals from various disciplines, business stakeholders, and external consultants. Their responsibilities include executing improvement plans, monitoring progress, and evaluating the impact of improvements.

Data Analysts

Data Analysts support the Continual Improvement process by providing data analysis and insights. They collect and analyse performance data, customer feedback, and other relevant information to identify improvement opportunities and to measure the effectiveness of improvement initiatives.

Key Performance Indicators / Metrics



Calculation Method

Improvement in Customer Satisfaction Scores

Measures changes in customer satisfaction levels before and after improvement initiatives.

Survey scores post-improvement minus survey scores pre-improvement.

Reduction in the Cost of Service Delivery

Tracks cost savings achieved through process optimisation and efficiency improvements.

Total cost before improvement minus total cost after improvement.

Decrease in Incident and Problem Volumes

Monitors the reduction in the number of incidents and problems reported.

Number of incidents/problems reported before improvement minus number reported after improvement.

Improvement in Service Performance Metrics

Assesses improvements in key service performance indicators (e.g., uptime, response time).

Specific metric value after improvement minus metric value before improvement.

Number of Successful Improvements Implemented

Counts the number of improvement initiatives that have been successfully completed and integrated.

Count of improvements reaching implementation stage and meeting their defined objectives.

Time to Implement Improvements

Measures the speed at which improvement initiatives are carried out from identification to implementation.

Average time from improvement identification to completion across all initiatives.

Improvement Initiative ROI

Evaluates the return on investment for improvement initiatives, indicating their financial impact.

(Gains from improvement - Cost of improvement) / Cost of improvement.

Employee Engagement and Satisfaction

Tracks changes in employee engagement and satisfaction levels, indicating the impact of improvements on internal operations and culture.

Survey scores post-improvement minus survey scores pre-improvement for employee satisfaction.

Process Efficiency Increase

Measures the increase in efficiency of processes targeted by improvement initiatives.

Process output post-improvement divided by process input (time, resources, etc.) compared to pre-improvement ratio.

Service Availability Improvement

Monitors the improvement in the availability of IT services, crucial for business operations.

Service uptime percentage after improvement minus service uptime percentage before improvement.

Key Advice

Implementing Continual Improvement within an organisation, following the ITIL v4 framework, requires strategic planning, commitment, and a culture that embraces change. Below, we explore key advice on effectively implementing and sustaining the Continual Improvement practice.

Prioritize Improvements Based on Strategic Impact and Feasibility

It's crucial to evaluate improvement opportunities not only on their potential benefits but also on their alignment with strategic objectives and their feasibility. Prioritisation ensures that resources are allocated to initiatives that offer the highest value and are achievable within the organisation's current constraints.

Foster a Culture of Openness and Encourage Feedback from All Stakeholders

A culture that encourages feedback, experimentation, and learning is essential for Continual Improvement. Encourage open communication channels where employees, customers, and partners can share ideas, feedback, and suggestions. This inclusive approach can uncover valuable insights and foster a sense of ownership and engagement across the organisation.

Use Data and Metrics to Guide Decision-Making and Measure Success

Data-driven decision-making is fundamental to the Continual Improvement process. Establish clear metrics and KPIs to evaluate the success of improvement initiatives. Regularly review these metrics to guide future efforts and to demonstrate the tangible benefits of improvements to stakeholders.

Ensure Improvements are Aligned with Overall Business Objectives

Continual Improvement initiatives should be closely aligned with the organisation's strategic goals. This alignment ensures that efforts contribute to the broader mission and objectives, enhancing the relevance and value of the IT service management framework.

Continuously Review and Refine the Continual Improvement Process Itself

Continual Improvement is not just about improving services and processes but also about refining the improvement process itself. Regularly assess the effectiveness of the Continual Improvement practice, seeking ways to enhance its efficiency, responsiveness, and impact on the organisation.

Adapting to Evolving Business Landscapes through Continual Improvement

The ability of an organisation to remain agile and responsive to changing business needs is critical. ITIL v4's Continual Improvement practice offers a structured approach to achieving this agility, enabling organisations to refine and adapt their services, processes, and practices over time.

The essence of Continual Improvement lies in its proactive stance towards change, encouraging organisations to not only react to changes in the external environment but to anticipate and shape these changes. This approach ensures that IT services remain aligned with the business's strategic goals, providing a competitive edge in a market that values flexibility and innovation.

The strategic implementation of Continual Improvement within an organisation brings about several key benefits. It enhances service quality by fostering a culture of excellence where every aspect of service delivery is continually evaluated and improved. This increases operational efficiency, as processes are streamlined and resources are optimised, reducing waste and lowering costs.

Moreover, Continual Improvement cultivates an environment of engagement and empowerment among employees. By involving staff in the improvement process, organisations can harness the collective expertise and creativity of their workforce, leading to innovative solutions that drive service excellence. This collaborative approach also improves employee satisfaction and retention, as individuals feel valued and part of the organisation's success.

For customers, the benefits of Continual Improvement are manifested in the form of higher quality services that are more closely aligned with their needs and expectations. This not only enhances customer satisfaction but also fosters loyalty, as customers recognise the organisation's commitment to delivering value and excellence.


This article discusses concepts and practices from the ITIL framework, which is a registered trademark of AXELOS Limited. The information provided here is based on the ITIL version 4 guidelines and is intended for educational and informational purposes only. ITIL is a comprehensive framework for IT service management, and its methodologies and best practices are designed to facilitate the effective and efficient delivery of IT services. For those interested in exploring ITIL further, we recommend consulting the official ITIL publications and resources provided by AXELOS Limited.